Pre-Columbian Art and History

Why should I take this course?

This course explores the visual, material, and textual cultures of the major civilizations that flourished in the regions we now call Latin America, from the first millennium BC through the conquest and colonization by Spain in the sixteenth century. We focus on some of the major cultures from Mesoamerica (Aztecs, Maya, Teotihuacan, and Olmec) and the Andes (Inka, Moche, Paracas, Chavin), and explores the rich visual traditions in architecture, urban planning, sculpture, textiles, manuscripts, portable goods, and mural painting. So why should you care? For one, the cultures we explore are unique and amazing, often challenging our expectations and perceptions. Sadly, many are unknown to people in the United States, or only biased or incorrect information is known about them. We will see how important many of these cultures are for their innovations and achievements. I LOVE this course, and I am hoping that by the end of the semester you will develop a deep appreciation for the subject.

Here’s another reason to take this class: We engage with local museum exhibitions, including the Getty Center’s Golden Kingdoms: Luxury and Legacy in the Ancient Americas and LACMA’s permanent collection, focused on the ancient Americas. This means that we do not only look at materials on a screen in a classroom, but we get to view 100s of objects in person to make the material “come alive” (not literally).

The class also fulfills the World Civilizations GE, and/or for those who might be interested it also counts as a class towards the Digital Humanities minor. If you are looking for an exciting–and very practical–minor, the DH minor is a wonderful opportunity to bridge humanities with technologically focused approaches. Think of it as the pairing of computational analysis (i.e., computer science) with the humanities (i.e., History, English, Art History, Philosophy). The minor teaches you some important skills, tools, and methodologies that will certainly help students in this competitive job market, regardless of your major.

How is this class taught?

This course is not taught in a typical chronological format. Because all the material we are looking at has been excavated archaeologically, the class is structured like an archaeological dig. We will examine the earliest material closest to the surface first (as in, the closest to us in time), followed by those cultures in deeper temporal layers. It is an exciting, yet different, approach, and one I hope you will all enjoy. Furthermore, we will focus first on Mesoamerica, followed by the Andes.

While I do have traditional lecture, I want to create a more active classroom that involves time for discussion, digital labs, Youtube and Smarthistory videos, digital scavenger hunts, and other types of activities. I regularly use Courses to communicate with students and to input grades into Gradebook for students to track of their grade throughout the semester. Please make sure you check your official Pepperdine email account regularly. I also rely heavily on Google apps, especially Docs, Sheets, Forms, and Sites, in this class. If you aren’t familiar or comfortable with any of these technologies, please let me know! You aren’t alone.

You are encouraged to use a laptop or tablet in class to record your notes and complete certain activities, but please only use these electronics for class activities rather than browsing the internet. This is to prevent distractions among the other students, as well as to foster a collaborative atmosphere among students. It is always my goal to help foster a community of learners, and there is great value in that community. To make it a positive one means we must all work together to create a supportive, productive, respectful, and open environment. Please also keep cell phones tucked away in your backpack. Lastly, you are welcome to take notes for your own personal use, but you cannot distribute or use these notes for any other reason without prior consent from me. Also, lectures cannot be recorded or filmed under these laws without my consent.

Course Schedule: Mesoamerica

Week 1

August 28: Introduction and Cultural Overviews


Lecture Topic: Syllabus Overview. General introduction to Mesoamerican and South American art before the Spanish Conquests. Geographic Orientation. Introduction to digital art history methods and tools.


To-do Before Lecture: Read over syllabus (if you can). [**Please note: all readings/videos listed under a given lecture are to be completed before that lecture, not after.]


Review readings for after class (if you want a recap): 


Activities (that we might do in class; hereafter, just Activities): 

  • Discussion of the problem with using the terms pre-Columbian, Ancient Americas, pre-Cortesian, or pre-Hispanic.


August 31: The Spanish Conquest and the Problems with Studying Mesoamerican Sources


Lecture Topic: Discussion of the Spanish Conquest. Examination of issues of using colonial sources, specifically codices, to understand the pre-Conquest period. Examination of surviving pre-Conquest Mesoamerican codices. Outline the merits and limitations of ethnohistory and ethnography.


To-do Before Lecture

  • Read: 
    • PADAM, Introduction, p. 11.
    • Taube, Aztec and Maya Myths (1993), pp. 7–30.
    • Elizabeth H. Boone, “How Efficient Are Early Colonial Mexican Manuscripts as Iconographic Tools?,” Research Center for the Arts Review 3.4 (1980): 1–5. 
    • Take the Online Reading Quiz (“Spanish Conquest and Sources”). Covers all the readings listed above. Due today by 12 PM. 10 questions.
  • Browse the Codex Mendoza online! It is a truly stunning digital humanities project (bilingual English and Spanish). Check it out and come with questions or comments to discuss in class.
  • Write your first reflection for this class. Create an individual Google Folder in your team folder (Last Name, First Name). Create a document in your individual google drive folder like this: Last Name, First Name-Reflections. You can label this first reflection by the date. The reflections are described above, but for this week you could (but don’t have to) reflect on the goals for the course and anything that excites, confuses, or concerns you. Why you are taking the course, what you expect to learn, and what might help you achieve your learning goals? You will also use this same document for other reflections completed during the semester. (If you have any problems, let me know!)


Review/Optional Readings:



  • Introduction to the Digital Humanities (#dh) and Digital Art History (#dah).
  • Working in your teams, we will further refine participation policies for the class and incorporate them into the syllabus. We will also consider changing the grade weights for the class.
  • The merits and limitations of using colonial manuscripts to understand Pre-Columbian cultures.
  • Working with textual vs. non-textual sources. Primary vs. secondary sources.
  • Annotation of folio page from colonial ms. (Magliabechiano)
  • Read short PS excerpt.

Week 2


September 7: Aztecs: Origins, Myths, and Tenochtitlan

Lecture Topic: The mythological origins of the Mexica. Overview of Tenochtitlan: its foundation, urban layout, and transformation.


To-do Before Lecture: 

  • Read/watch:
  • Take the Online Reading Quiz (“The Aztecs”) on Courses,  due today by 12 PM (so September 7, at 12:00 PM). Covers all the readings/videos listed above. 10 questions. Up to 3 submissions. Untimed, but draws from a larger pool of questions. Each time you take it, the questions could change. [This is true for every online reading quiz from this point forward]
  • Write a reflection. You will also use this same document you used previously, just with a new entry by date (you can also come up with catchy titles if you prefer!)


Review/Optional Readings 



  • Discuss the influence of cosmological myths and genealogical histories on a culture. 
  • Part 2 of Codex Magliabechiano annotation exercise.
  • Evaluation of online sources (example: websites on human sacrifice).


Week 3

September 11: Aztecs: The Templo Mayor and Imperial Ideology

Lecture Topic: Discussion of the sacred precinct of Tenochtitlan, with attention paid primarily to the main temple and its orientation, decoration, and sculptures. Archaeological excavations of the Templo Mayor. Relationship of Templo Mayor to mytho-history of the Aztecs. Focus on imperial iconography in sculpture: in thrones, sun disks, and female sculptures.


To-do Before Lecture: 

  • Read:
    • Taube, Aztec and Maya Myths (1993), pp. 44–50, which will help you understand the Templo Mayor.
    • SH: The Templo Mayor
  • Read or watch the following SH entries about objects found associated with the Templo Mayor:
  • Read about Digital Art History: What is metadata? 
    • A Gentle Introduction to Metadata” (only sections 1–5) by Jeff Good of UC-Berkeley. We will be discussing metadata in class, specifically for artworks. Good’s discussion relates to texts, so think about the differences between generating metadata about objects/images vs. written texts, as well as any issues you see in metadata creation.
  • Take the Online Reading Quiz (“Templo Mayor and Metadata”). Covers all the readings/videos listed above. Due today by 12 PM. 15 questions.



  • Hands-on Activity: Templo Mayor scavenger hunt and discussion of copyrights and fair use.
  • Discuss how empires use art, architecture, and myths to sustain power. The Coatlicue monolith: its iconography, historical implications, and gender metaphors.
  • Distribute Mixtec ms. assignment to be completed for next time on Zouche-Nuttall. 

September 14: The Postclassic International Style


Lecture Topic: Introduction to the Late-Postclassic International style. The International Style and Pictorial Codices, the Mixtecs at Mitla. Basic introduction to Mixteca-Puebla ceramics. Manuscripts and the Epic of Lord 8 Deer. Examination of connections between Mesoamerica and the Southwest at Paquimé and Casas Grandes, as well as consider the vast trade networks. Introduction to Team Project.


To-do Before Lecture: 

  • Complete the Mixtec ms. assignment distributed during the last class.
  • Write a reflection. While they are always open ended, if you want some direction you could reflect on your experience with this assignment. What did you like about it? In what ways did it help you understand the Codex Zouche Nuttall better? Are there ways the assignment could have been improved, in your opinion? Feel free to reflect on other ideas as well! 


Optional readings (that could be really helpful for your class project!)

  • Read Robert Lloyd Williams, “Preface,” pp. xii-xv; “Reading Techniques,” pp. 25-29; Boone and Smith, “Postclassic International Styles and Symbol Sets,” pp. 186-193; and Michael Smith, “Key Commodities,” pp. 117-125, all in The Postclassic Mesoamerican World, ed. Michael E. Smith and Frances F. Berdan (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 2003).



  • Discuss metadata and its significance.
    • Hands-on activity: Create metadata for Coyolxauhqui.
  • Working with non-textual sources.
  • Teams will share their ideas from assignment they completed on Codex Zouche Nuttall, and then create an annotated image.
  • Discussion of the team and individual project.
  • Brainstorm Team Project: Theme, individual portion, tools and methods.
    • Choose specific codex for project and theme.


Resources and Further Reading

  • There are a few digital projects and resources that are helpful for learning more about the postclassic International Style, Mesoamerican manuscripts (esp. Mixtec manuscripts). Outside of these sources, online sources are TERRIBLE and should be avoided for your projects. Consult books and articles from the library.
    • Mesolore: has great resources on the Codex Nuttall, with high quality images
    • FAMSI: you are already somewhat familiar, but this is an excellent, comprehensive resource! It can be a little tricky to navigate, so give it some time or ask questions if you can’t find what you are looking for.
    • Mesoweb: General Mesoamerican resources, articles, etc.
    • British Museum (where the Codex Nuttall is held): not very informative, but provides some basic info

Week 4

September 18: Epiclassic and the International Style


Lecture: Examination of the International Style at Epiclassic sites.


To-do Before Lecture: 

  • Take the Online Reading Quiz (“Epiclassic and Omeka”). Covers all the readings/videos listed above. Due today by 12 PM. 15 questions.


Review/Optional Readings:



  1. Completion of Codex Nuttall activity
  2. Discussion of the team and individual project.
    1. Brainstorm Team Project: Theme, individual portion, tools and methods.
    2. Choose codex/ms. and team theme

September 21:  Teotihuacan


Lecture: Discussion of the urban layout of the largest city in Mesoamerica. Major buildings in landscape. Symbolic connotations of layout. General aesthetic of the city. Discussion of function and layout of most decorated building at Teotihuacan. Symbolism and recent discoveries at the building.


To-do Before Lecture: 

  • Decide on the page/folio (of your team’s chosen codex) and make sure you have the image available during class–we will upload it as an Omeka Item!
  • Read PADAM, pp. 29–35.
  • Watch SH video and read essay: Teotihuacan 
  • Take the Online Reading Quiz (“Teotihuacan”). Covers all the readings/videos listed above. Due today by 2 PM. 10 questions.
  • Write a reflection. If you feel so inclined, it would be wonderful to have some of your reflection focus on what you have learned so far about pre-Columbian art history and digital art history. Look back to the course objectives and learning outcomes and perhaps reflect on how you think we’ve achieved them so far. Has there been anything particularly confusing, exciting, interesting, helpful, bizarre, or terrible that you’ve encountered or learned?



  • Discuss the aesthetics of abstraction: its implications at Teo and beyond. Also, discussion of how style and ethnicity is often linked. Discuss the architecture of imperialism.
  • Tour and overview of
  • Brainstorm how you might compare your page/folio to other artworks, materials, etc.
  • Add an Item (your chosen page or folio) to Omeka during class.
  • Hands-on session: Finding sources and saving search terms
    • Finding, Organizing, and Analyzing Digital Art History Data and Sources
  • Hands-on Session: Teotihuacan Scavenger Hunt and further discussion of copyrights and fair use.



Week 5

September 25: Maya: Divine Kingship


Lecture: Focus on the origins of divine kingship, as well as the symbolism of rulership. Case study on Pre-Classic San Bartolo murals and Classic period Tikal.


To-do Before Lecture: 

  • Read 
  • Take the Online Reading Quiz (“Maya Kingship”). Covers all the readings/videos listed above. Due today by 2 PM. 15 questions.
  • Please don’t forget about the Sep 27 lecture @ 2 PM (read about it below). It is required.


Optional Readings:

  • Short review of the exhibition Lords of Creation: Maya Divine Kingship–it sums up the concept of divine kingship well



  • Discuss the enduring legacy of the Popol Vuh.
  • Consider how to incorporate different types of resources into your digital project for analysis.
    • Finding, Organizing, and Analyzing Digital Art History Data and Sources

September 28: Maya: Courtly Arts


Lecture: Examination of painting, mural and portable arts, in Maya culture. Examination of Maya hieroglyphic Writing. We will watch a film on the decipherment of Maya hieroglyphic text (later in the semester).


To-do Before Lecture: 


Review/Optional Readings:



  • Consider how to incorporate different types of resources into your digital project for analysis.
    • Finding, Organizing, and Analyzing Digital Art History Data and Sources
  • Consider how the transformation of context affects visual narrative in painting.
  • Provide students with unknown vessel. They can use any means to come up with compelling ideas as to what it displays and how it was used. They should record any searches they do, metadata, etc.
  • Creating metadata for your Item.
    • Create metadata for Maya painted vessel.
  • Evaluation of online sources.
  • Q&A on the crowdsourced study guide.


10/1: Complete your crowd-sourced study guide assignment!

Week 6

October 2: Olmec: Landscapes of Power at La Venta and Caves of Emergence


Lecture: Introduction to the Olmec. Examination of La Venta: its layout and symbolism.


To-do Before Lecture:  

  • Individual proposal due by no later than today and brief presentation (2 minutes) of your individual component in class.
  • If you haven’t done so already, today is the due date by which you should have added your additional comparative images or objects as Items to 
  • Read/watch:
  • Take the Online Reading Quiz (“Olmecs”). Covers all the readings/videos listed above. Due today by 2 PM. 10 questions.


Optional Readings





  • Proposal presentations
  • Discuss the relationship between landscape, architecture, and power. Focus on the significance and symbolism of Olmec “altars,” or thrones. Caves and agricultural symbolism in Olmec culture. Olmec sites and their art outside the heartland, and their connection to La Venta’s iconography.
  • Evaluation of how colonial and Post-Classic Aztec textual sources have been used to understand the Olmec. 

**October 5: Exam 1–All Mesoamerican Material**

  • Bonus points (+3) if you write a reflection for today AFTER the exam. If you felt so inclined, you could reflect on the exam itself.

Course Schedule: The Andes

Week 7

October 9:  The Problems with Studying Andean Sources and Introduction to the Inkas


Lecture: Focus on the merits and limitations of colonial Peruvian sources for understanding Inka culture. Introduction to the Andes and the Inka.


To-do Before Lecture:

    • Read:
    • Take the Online Reading Quiz (“The Andes and Sources”). Covers all the readings/videos listed above. Due today by 2 PM. 15 questions.
    • Write a reflection. If you need some direction, you could reflect on your experience learning about Mesoamerica overall.


  • Also, look at the course project requirements. There are some coming up, such as the 10/16 team project proposal and presentation AND 10/20 Bibliographic List and descriptions (parts 1-2 of info/bib portion of the project). You might review the Omeka Exhibition Project Description and Directions that you and your team are completing for this class. We will work on your team introduction proposal in class.



Optional Readings

  •  Selections from Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala, The First New Chronicle and Good Government (Hamilton, 2010).



  • Work on team introduction.
  • Evaluation of Online Sources.
  • Discuss the merits and limitations of using Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala’s New Chronicle and Good Government (c. 1615) to understand pre-Hispanic Andean culture.


October 12:  Inka: Conquest and Qusqo


Lecture: Background of the Inka Empire and Spanish Conquest. The Inka capital’s layout and organization, as well as symbolism.


To-do Before Lecture: 

  • Read:
    • PADAM, pp. 75-78.
    • SH: 
    • Gary Urton, Inca myths, pp. 34–58.
    • (PLEASE NOTE: Qusqo/Cusco/Cuzco all connote the same capital of the Inka Empire; similarly, Coricancha/Qorikancha mean the same thing)
  • Take the Online Reading Quiz (“Inkas and Qusqo”). Covers all the readings/videos listed above. Due today by 2 PM. 15 questions.
  • Write a reflection. If you need some direction, you could reflect on faith and spirituality; has anything we’ve discussed encouraged you to reflect on your own faith? 
  • Keep in mind: team proposal and presentation due next class!
  • Keep in mind: 10/20 is the due date for the first two stages of your information literacy assignment for your project.


Discussion: Discuss the possible literal or symbolic layout of Qusqo based on textual and archaeological sources.



  • Creating metadata for your items.
  • Omeka Q&A.
  • Project Q&A. 
  • Finding sources.

Week 8

October 16: Inka Textiles, Metalworking, Stone and Place-Making


Lecture: The aesthetics, engineering, and symbolism of stone in Inka culture. Machu Picchu.


To-do Before Lecture: 


  • Team proposal and brief presentation due today.


  • Read SH: 
  • Take the Online Reading Quiz (“Inka Materials”). Covers all the readings/videos listed above. Due today by 2 PM. 10 questions.
  • Keep in mind: 10/20 is the due date for the first two stages of your information literacy assignment for your project.


Optional/recommended readings:



  • Team essay introduction proposal presentations today.
  • Discuss the symbolism of stone and its possible relationship to other cultures. Focus on the fabrication, symbolism, and function of textiles within the Empire. The use of dress to communicate a person’s or group’s identity.


October 19:  Wari, Tiwanaku, Chimu


Lecture: Relationship between Wari and Tiwanaku. The significance of Tiwanaku for later cultures. Chimor and the site of Chan Chan.


To-do Before Lecture:  

  • Read PADAM, pp. 69-72.
  • Watch UNESCO’s video on Tiwanaku
  • SH: Introduction to Chimu culture
  • Take the Online Reading Quiz (“Wari and Tiwanaku”). Covers all the readings/videos listed above. Due today by 2 PM. 5 questions.
  • Write a reflection.
  • (If you are planning to revise a portion of your exam, as explained below, this will be due by Monday, 10/23)
    • Everyone has the opportunity to revise and resubmit one short answer and one take-home essay from their exam. Place your revised versions in your individual folder. All comments on the take-home essay are accessed in the turnitin version of your essays.



  • Project planning: Team Introduction, Uploading Essays to Omeka.
  • Optional LACMA scavenger hunt trip.


October 20: Bibliographic List and descriptions due by no later than today for Omeka Project. (parts 1-2 of info/bib portion of the project); place into your google drive folder!

Week 9

October 23: Moche


Lecture: Focus on the recent findings at the Huacas at the site of Moche. Discussion of how the layout, decoration, objects, and iconography relate to Moche politics and religion, especially in relation to El Nino. Focus on the tombs of Sipan: their objects and connection to Moche culture in general. The Sacrifice Ceremony and fine-line ceramics. Production process, style, and iconography of Moche ceramics. Focus on portrait ceramics.


To-do Before Lecture: 


Review/Optional reading:

  • Steve Bourget, “Rituals of Sacrifice: Its Practice at Huaca de la Luna and Its Representation in Moche Iconography,” in Moche Art and Archaeology in Ancient Peru, Joanne Pillsbury, ed., Studies in the History of Art 63, Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts, Symposium Papers XL. Washington D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 89-110.



  • Discuss the implications of archaeological discoveries at the site of Moche.
  • Discuss how looting distorts the archaeological record and art historical discussions.
  • Discuss the concept of portraiture: its definition and limitations.
  • Creating metadata for a Moche portrait vessel.

October 26: Paracas and Nazca


Lecture: Explore the production, style, symbolism, and context of Paracas Necropolis textiles. Examine the earthworks known as the Nasca Lines. The iconography of Nazca ceramics.


We will also go to Payson Library today to view European medieval manuscripts. Think of this as an opportunity to compare European book traditions with Mesoamerican and Andean writing systems and literacy. It should be exciting. We will have lecture first, then head to Payson at 3:15 for the remainder of class.


Payson Mss. Assignment will be started during this time, and completed by the next class.


To-do Before Lecture: 



  • Creating metadata for a Moche portrait vessel.
  • Discuss the implications of identifying and interpreting iconographic motifs without written records.
  • Revisiting
  • Visit Payson Medieval Mss. and begin comparative assignment

Week 10 

October 30: Paracas and Nazca + Chavín de Huantar


Lecture: Explore the production, style, symbolism, and context of Paracas Necropolis textiles. Examine the earthworks known as the Nasca Lines. The iconography of Nazca ceramics.

 Overview of the site of Chavín. Its layout, major buildings, and decorative program. Discussion of shamanism and hallucinogens at Chavín. The spread of Chavín art.


To-do Before Lecture:  

  • Add to the crowd-sourced study guide. Your contributions are due by today! Exam is 11/6
  • Read: 
  • Take the Online Reading Quiz (“Chavin”). Covers all the readings/videos listed above. Due today by 12 PM. 5 questions.
  • Write a reflection. If you need some direction… Write a short reflection about all the Andean material we’ve covered. 


Review/Optional readings

  • Alana Cordy-Collins, “Chavín Art: Its Shamanic/Hallucinogenic Origins,” 1977. 
  • A theoretical reading on shamanism that relates to the ideas we will discuss in relation to Chavin: “On Sharpness and Scholarship in the Debate on ‘Shamanism’,” Current Anthropology 45, no. 2 (June 2004): 404-406.



  • In-class evaluation of online source: Chavin Civilization on Ancient History Encyclopedia. Fill out the online source evaluation chart after you’ve listened to lecture.


November 2:  Team and Individual Project Development


To-do Before Lecture: 


  • Please watch VIDEO FOR LECTURE on Chavin 
  • Continue working on your project. Bring a computer if you can, and any materials you might need to complete the team essay in particular (hint: books and other sources).


      • Remaining time will be devoted to your individual essays, so bring any materials you might need!


  • Team and Individual Components are due 11/13!


  • Write a reflection that focuses on how you’ve developed your project. Has it been fun, engaging, frustrating, overwhelming, stressful, exciting, boring, or something else? Also, I would love if you could reflect on this question: Have we done an adequate job covering most or all of the program learning goals outlined at the syllabus’s beginning in relation to this material? This might be slightly longer than your average reflection…
  • If you want more guidance on the PRESENTATION on 11/13, here is a link to guidelines and the grading rubric.



  • During class, you will work on your team essay, trying to complete it and even upload it (if it is finished). Make sure to bring a computer.
  • Remaining time will be devoted to your individual essays, so bring any materials you might need!

Week 11 

November 6: Exam 2–All Andean Material**

Study Guide for Exam 2.


  • Please watch VIDEO FOR LECTURE on Chavin (45 minutes), if you haven’t already done so! This material is on the exam.



Bonus points (+3) if you write a reflection on the exam after you take it.

November 9: Pre-Columbian Cultures in Modern Times


Lecture: Today we will examine how pre-Columbian cultures and artworks are presented in pop culture, such as Hollywood films and advertisements. Indigenous Cultures in the Modern and Contemporary Moment. Chicana/o art.


To-do Before Lecture: 


Optional Readings:



  • Discuss how popular culture representations can help or harm our understanding of pre-Columbian culture.

Week 12

November 13: Presentations


To-do Before Lecture:

  • Reminder: Complete team introduction and add to Omeka by no later than today.
  • Reminder: Complete individual contribution and add to Omeka by no later than today.
  • Link to guidelines and grading rubric

November 16: SCREENING OF Cracking the Maya Code



  • Watch the documentary Cracking the Maya Code. 
    • You can watch it here on Youtube or go to the library to watch it. It is 54 minutes.
  • Complete the following activity either while you watch it or after you’ve watched it.
  • Write a reflection after viewing the documentary. Some questions you could address: How does it challenge our ideas about writing and literacy? About Maya culture? About Mesoamerica in general? What was fascinating, engaging, perplexing? How does this alter your understanding of the pre-Columbian Americas? Writing in general?

Week 13

November 20: Project Completion Day!



  • Complete the bibliographic/information literacy component of the course project. Due today.
  • Write a reflection.
  • You do not need to be in class to complete this assignment.

November 22­–24: THANKSGIVING HOLIDAY—No class



Week 14





Week 15





Week 16

December 13 (Wednesday): Final Exam

1:30–2:00 PM

Stop by CAC 204 to deliver your “final experience” reflection essays.